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Provisions of Partnership Deed | Essential Guide for Business Owners

Mar 22, 2024 | Blogs

Provisions of Partnership Deed

In the realm of business partnerships, the provisions of partnership deed stands as a cornerstone document, delineating the terms, rights, and obligations among partners. Understanding its provisions is paramount for ensuring smooth operations and mitigating potential conflicts.

What is the Provisions of Partnership Deed?

The provisions of a partnership deed are the specific terms and conditions outlined in a legal document that governs the establishment, operation, and dissolution of a partnership. These provisions typically cover various aspects of the partnership, including but not limited to:

Importance of a Partnership Deed

A partnership deed is a crucial document for any business run as a partnership. It outlines the legal agreement between the partners, setting the ground rules for how the business will operate. Here’s why having a partnership deed is important:

Clarity and Transparency:

A well-drafted deed spells out the rights, duties, and liabilities of each partner. This clarity helps avoid misunderstandings and disputes down the line.

Dispute Resolution:

If disagreements arise, the partnership deed serves as a reference point for resolving them. It provides a documented framework for finding solutions based on what was mutually agreed upon.

Profit and Loss Sharing:

The deed clarifies how profits and losses will be shared among the partners. This prevents confusion and potential conflicts over finances.

Defined Roles:

The responsibilities of each partner are clearly outlined in the deed. This ensures everyone knows what’s expected of them and avoids duplication of efforts or missed tasks.

Remuneration and Capital Contributions:

The deed may specify how partners will be compensated for their work and how capital contributions are handled. This includes outlining any salaries, commissions, or interest payments.

Exit Strategy:

The deed can establish procedures for admitting new partners or how a partner can leave the partnership. This helps ensure a smooth transition if circumstances change.

What Does a Partnership Deed Contain

A partnership deed acts as a rulebook for a business partnership, outlining the rights and responsibilities of each partner. Here are some of the key things a partnership deed typically contains:

Basic Information:

This includes the name and address of the partnership firm, as well as the names and contact details of all the partners involved.

Business Details:

The nature of the business the partnership will be undertaking is clearly specified.


The deed may mention whether the partnership is for a fixed term or indefinite.

Capital Contributions:

The amount of capital each partner contributes to the business is outlined, along with details on profit sharing ratios which may be based on capital contribution or another agreed-upon method.

Profit and Loss Sharing:

The deed specifies how profits and losses will be divided amongst the partners. This ratio can be equal, based on capital contribution, or another mutually agreed-upon method.

Roles and Responsibilities:

The duties and authorities of each partner are clearly defined. This helps ensure everyone understands their role and avoids confusion.


The deed may specify how partners will be compensated, including any salaries, commissions, or interest on capital contributions.


The amount each partner can withdraw from the business for personal use on a regular basis may be established.

Dispute Resolution:

The deed may outline a process for resolving disagreements that may arise between partners.

Admission and Retirement of Partners:

The process for admitting new partners or how a partner can leave the partnership is established. This ensures a smooth transition if someone exits the business.


The deed may specify conditions under which the partnership will dissolve.

Other Clauses:

Additional clauses can be included to address specific needs of the partnership, such as non-compete agreements or procedures for maintaining the partnership’s accounting records.

The Indian Partnership Act,1932

The Indian Partnership Act of 1932 is a legislation that governs the formation, operation, and dissolution of partnerships in India. Enacted on October 1, 1932, it provides a comprehensive legal framework for partnerships, establishing the rights, duties, and liabilities of partners, as well as the rules for conducting partnership business.

Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act,1932

The Indian Partnership Act of 1932 contains several provisions that govern the establishment, operation, and dissolution of partnerships in India. Here are some of the key provisions outlined in the Act:

Definition of Partnership:

The Act defines a partnership as the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.

Partnership Agreement:

It specifies that a partnership may be formed by agreement between the partners, which may be either oral or in writing.

Rights and Duties of Partners:

The Act outlines the rights and duties of partners, including the right to take part in the conduct of the partnership business, the duty to act in good faith, and the duty to indemnify the firm for losses caused by willful neglect or misconduct.

Profit Sharing and Losses:

It provides rules for sharing profits and losses among partners, unless otherwise agreed upon in the partnership agreement.

Management of Partnership:

The Act governs the management of the partnership business, including the powers of partners in making decisions and the authority of majority partners in conducting business.

Liability of Partners:

It defines the extent of liability of partners, stating that partners are jointly and severally liable for the debts and obligations of the partnership.

Admission and Retirement of Partners

The Act regulates the admission of new partners to the partnership, as well as the retirement or expulsion of existing partners.

Dissolution of Partnership

It provides for the dissolution of a partnership under various circumstances, such as by mutual agreement, by court order, or due to the death or insolvency of a partner.

Settlement of Accounts

The Act stipulates the procedure for settling the accounts of the partnership upon dissolution, including the distribution of assets and settlement of liabilities.

Registration of Partnership

While registration is not mandatory, the Act allows for the registration of partnership firms, which provides certain legal benefits such as the right to sue and be sued in the firm’s name.

How to Govern a Partnership in the Absence of a Partnership Deed?

In the absence of a partnership deed, governing a partnership requires relying on the default provisions outlined in the relevant partnership laws and regulations. Here are some steps to govern a partnership in the absence of a partnership deed:

Understanding Default Legal Provisions:

Familiarize yourself with the default provisions of the applicable partnership laws in your jurisdiction. For example, in India, the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, provides default rules governing partnerships in the absence of a deed.

Equal Profit-Sharing

In the absence of a specific agreement, profits and losses are typically shared equally among partners. Ensure that all partners understand and agree to this default provision.

Unanimous Consent for Major Decisions

Decisions affecting the fundamental aspects of the partnership should ideally be made unanimously by all partners. This includes decisions regarding admission or expulsion of partners, changes in the nature of business, or dissolution of the partnership.

Maintaining Transparency

Even without a partnership deed, transparency in financial matters is crucial. Keep accurate records of income, expenses, assets, and liabilities, and ensure that all partners have access to this information.

Equal Management Rights

Unless otherwise agreed, all partners usually have equal rights in managing the partnership business. Decisions related to day-to-day operations should be made collectively, with each partner having an equal say.

Resolving Disputes Amicably

Establish a mechanism for resolving disputes among partners in an amicable manner. This may involve informal discussions, mediation, or arbitration, depending on the nature and severity of the dispute.

Documentation of Agreements

Even in the absence of a formal partnership deed, document any agreements or understandings reached among partners in writing. This could include agreements regarding profit-sharing, decision-making procedures, or any other important aspects of the partnership.

Seek Legal Advice if Necessary

If you encounter complex legal issues or disputes that cannot be resolved internally, seek legal advice from a qualified attorney specializing in partnership law. They can provide guidance based on the default legal provisions applicable to your partnership.

While operating without a partnership deed may present challenges, adhering to default legal provisions, maintaining open communication, and prioritizing fairness can help govern the partnership effectively until a formal deed is established or required changes are made.

Registration of a Partnership Deed

The Indian Registration Act of 1908 requires the registration of the partnership deed, usually on non-judicial stamp paper valued at ₹200 or higher, reflecting the firm’s capital. Signed by all partners, each partner must retain a copy. Registration takes place at the Sub-Registrar/Registrar Office in the firm’s jurisdiction, with stamp duty varying per state as per the state’s Stamp Act. Notarization, along with registration, legally validates the partnership deed.
Format of the Deed of a Partnership

The format of a deed of partnership typically includes the following sections:

Title: The title of the document should clearly state that it is a “Deed of Partnership.

Parties: Identify the parties involved in the partnership, including their names, addresses, and roles within the partnership (e.g., partners, managing partner).

Recitals: Provide a brief introduction or background information about the partnership, including the purpose of forming the partnership and any relevant agreements or discussions leading up to its establishment.

Terms and Conditions: Outline the terms and conditions of the partnership, including but not limited to:
– Name and address of the partnership
– Nature of the business
– Duration of the partnership (if applicable)
– Capital contributions from each partner
– Profit-sharing ratio
– Management and decision-making authority
– Duties and responsibilities of each partner
– Procedures for admitting new partners or retiring existing partners
– Dispute resolution mechanisms
– Dissolution and winding up procedures

Witness Clause: Include a clause acknowledging that the document is signed in the presence of witnesses who attest to the authenticity of the signatures.

Execution: Provide space for each partner to sign the document, along with the date of signing.

Notarization: Optionally, include a section for notarization by a licensed notary public, depending on the legal requirements in your jurisdiction.

Schedule: Attach any schedules or appendices containing additional details or information relevant to the partnership, such as a list of partners’ contributions or an inventory of partnership assets.

Governing Law: Specify the governing law of the partnership, which determines the legal framework under which the partnership operates and resolves disputes.

Jurisdiction: Indicate the jurisdiction in which any disputes arising from the partnership will be resolved, typically the location of the partnership’s principal place of business.

By following this format and including all necessary information, the deed of partnership becomes a legally binding document that governs the rights, duties, and obligations of the partners in the partnership.

Why Is Provisioning Important?

Provisioning is essential in situations where critical terms governing the operation of a partnership firm are absent. It aids in resolving disputes by providing a reference point for addressing issues. Additionally, provisioning facilitates proper bookkeeping, enabling the preparation of accurate financial statements. These statements are instrumental in assessing the partnership firm’s progress, reflecting its profitability and safeguarding partners against unfair treatment.

For instance, consider a scenario where partners A, B, and C establish a partnership. Although C provides a loan to the firm, the absence of a partnership deed allows A and B to exploit C’s position by neglecting to pay any interest. However, if the partnership deed provisions stipulate a 6% interest rate on partner loans, C can assert his rights and legally secure repayment.

What Are the Conditions for Provisioning of Partnership Deed?

There are no specific conditions for the provisioning of a partnership deed. Instead, in the absence of a partnership deed, the provisions that would typically be outlined in the partnership deed become applicable.

What Is the Process of Provisioning a Partnership Deed?

So, when you decide to establish a partnership firm with your partners, the first step is to draft your partnership deed. However, if you overlook certain fundamental terms in the deed, it could potentially lead to conflicts in the future. In such cases, the provisions outlined in the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, come into play to resolve any disputes and ensure the smooth functioning of your business.

In summary, in the absence of a partnership deed or certain terms within it, the provisions of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, govern the partnership. This underscores the importance of crafting the partnership deed with precision and clarity. A well-defined partnership deed positively impacts the success of your firm, saving you time, money, and conflicts in the long run. Even if you haven’t created a partnership deed initially, the process of provisioning one, as explained in this article, can protect you from exploitation and help you navigate your partnership effectively.

If you’re in need of partnership deed services, look no further than TheStartupGig for expert assistance. Whether you’re establishing a new partnership or revising existing agreements, TheStartupGig offers comprehensive support to ensure your legal documentation is thorough and tailored to your specific needs. With their expertise and dedication, you can trust TheStartupGig to guide you through the process efficiently and effectively, helping to safeguard the interests of all parties involved. Contact them today to get started on solidifying your partnership agreements with confidence.


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